Networking Basic (2021) . What is an IP address, Subnet Mask,  Switch, Router & Gateway , firewall  & DMG ?

Friends, today we are going to study some basics of computer networking. This will be very important knowledge and if you work in computer field then it will also be necessary for you.




IP Address :- 

First of all, I would like to tell that the full form of IP address is Internet Protocol Address. This is a unique address, due to which it is easy to identify networking devices on the Internet or local area network. An IP address allows the computers to send & receive information over network. its mean without IP address , networking devices could not communicate .

IP stands for "Internet Protocol," which is the set of rules governing the format of data sent via the internet or local network.

  • The size of IP V4 address is 32bits.
  • IP address are represented in dot decimal notation . like 192.168.10.1
  • IP address consisting of 4 decimal numbers while each numbers ranging is from 0 to 255.
  • There are 2 types of IP address . Private & Public IP address.
  • Private IP address mean LAN IP address while Public mean WAN IP address.


Subnet Mask :-

Subnet mask represents your network. This means that you can find out from the subnet mask how big or small your LAN is.

The subnet mask is something like this - 255.255.255.0




Switch :-

Switch This is a network intelligence device. Its main function is to keep all network devices connected in one LAN. A network switch is a device that works to connect all the devices located in the network. With the help of switches, these devices are able to transfer data and communicate with each other.

Types Of Network Switch :- 

  • Unmanaged Switch 

Its normal switch . Unmanaged switch operates on Data Link Layer . its layer 2 device. 

  • Managed Switch

This types of switch can manage . its operated on network layer . its mean its is layer 3 device. 
There are another many types of switch like POE switch , Enterprise Managed Switch, Smart Switch.  
  • Switch comes in layer 2 & layer 3 device
  • Its mean switch operates on Data Link & Network Layer .
  • Unmanaged Switch (Normal Switch ) , POE Switch , Enterprise Managed Switch, Smart Switch its all are types of switches.




Router & Gateway :-

First of all I would like to tell that router is a network intelligence device. It works at the network layer of OSI. That is, it is a layer 3 device.

Simply saying, the job of a router is to connect two or more networks together. Switches perform the function of interconnecting all the hosts or devices in a LAN while the router does the work of connecting the network.

It manages network traffic and selects the best path for forwarding data packets.

The IP of the port of the router through which the traffic passes is called the default gateway IP. Meaning the gateway is in a way called the router itself.

Types Of Router :-

  • Wired Router 
  • Wireless Router
  • Core Router
  • Edge Router
  • Virtual Router





Firewall :-

Firewall It is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing traffic and according to the security rules set under it, which traffic to allow and which to block, it also works.

like blocking unwanted internet sites.

There are mainly two types of firewall, one is software and the other is hardware.




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